The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (STATEC) has published new data from the 2021 Census.

Luxembourg has a population of over 645,000 people, which is rather unevenly distributed geographically.

The south has far more inhabitants than the centre or the north. The cantons of Esch-sur-Alzette and Luxembourg City are home to 60% of the population. In comparison, only 0.9% of the population lives in the canton of Vianden. 41.5% of Luxembourg is completely uninhabited.

Luxembourg City is by far the country's largest municipality, with 128,000 residents. The capital's residents make up approximately a fifth of the entire population. Several municipalities have over 15,000 inhabitants: Esch-sur-Alzette, Differdange, Pétange, Sanem, and Hesperange. Of these five, Esch has the biggest population, with 36,000 inhabitants.

Saeul, the smallest municipality, has fewer than 1,000 residents, 960 to be exact.

Luxembourgish nationality is held by 52.8% of the population. Foreign residents make up 47.2% of the population.

Since 1961, the number of foreign residents has risen from more than 13% to more than 47%. Due to the high number of naturalisations, however, the percentage of non-Luxembourgers has stabilised over time.

There are slightly more men living in Luxembourg (50.4%) than women.