Mobility consultancy ECA International took on the challenge of ranking 480 cities on various factors including health services, safety, housing, and air quality.

The capital cities of Denmark and Switzerland took the top spots thanks to their excellent air quality and low levels of crime.

Luxembourg came ninth in the ranking. Edinburgh was meanwhile the only city in the UK to make it into the top 20. London dropped to 47th due to low safety and air quality scores.

Top 20

1. Copenhagen, Denmark

1. Bern, Switzerland

3. The Hague, the Netherlands

3. Geneva, Switzerland

5. Eindhoven, the Netherlands

5. Stavanger, Norway

7. Amsterdam, the Netherlands

7. Basel, Switzerland

9. Dublin, Ireland

9. Luxembourg City, Luxembourg

9. Gothenburg, Sweden

12. Aarhus, Denmark

12. Rotterdam, the Netherlands

14. Zurich, Switzerland

15. Bonn, Germany

15. Munich, Germany

17. Vienna, Austria

17. Hamburg, Germany

19. Stockholm, Sweden

19. Edinburgh, Scotland